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EXPLORATION AND WAR continued...

THE CANADIAN FUR TRADE continued...
Lot Symbol CatNo. Lot Description CV or Estimate
201   [North West Company, 1815] One manuscript letter (fair copy) and one autograph letter concerning the companys business. The first, from Montreal, May 13, 1815, from WCK Owen to
Lt. Wingfield of the schooner Surprise has great content: The Cap[North West Company, 1815] One manuscript letter (fair copy) and one autograph letter concerning the company's business. The first, from Montreal, May 13, 1815, from WCK Owen to Lt. Wingfield of the schooner Surprise has great content: "The Capture by the Americans last year of the Vessels belonging to the NW Company on Lake Huron together with the destruction of a quantity of Flour intended for their Settlements has distressed them...I have therefore to desire that you will take the earliest opportunity...after having conveyed what is necessary for the Garrison of McKinac of proceeding to (Mituasaakie?) with the Schooner you command & that you receive on board there as much provisions as you can." The second, from 1820, regards an account between a Montreal trader and a company in Queenston, 1820. (Image) Est. $400-500

SOLD for $220.00
Will close during Public Auction
202   [North West Company, James Leith, 1815] Choice content Autograph Letter Signed by James Leith, one of the partners of the North West Company, Fort William, Lake Superior
(present-day Thunder Bay, Ontario), August 27, 1815. He writes to his mother[North West Company, James Leith, 1815] Choice content Autograph Letter Signed by James Leith, one of the partners of the North West Company, Fort William, Lake Superior (present-day Thunder Bay, Ontario), August 27, 1815. He writes to his mother in Aberdeen, Scotland. With much-traveled cover stamped "SHIP LETTER / QUEBEC" and rated "Pd 1/2 (one shilling, two pence); also stamped "SHIP LETTER / ABERDEEN" and re-rated 2/8, leaving 1/6 due on delivery. Apparently Quebec had rated the letter at 1/2 oz (the rate was 6p per 1/4 oz, with a 2p ship fee) but it was rated at 1oz in Aberdeen and in addition to the extra ship fee was charged the 6p inland fee. Leith writes his mother that he has just been on a trip to York Factory, and for the past ten days:"have been traveling almost night and day...Five days more in my light canoe would have taken me to Montreal...The country is in such a critical state (although at present in peace)...Both the Canada and American Governments talk very openly that the present peace can be of no long duration...What is the most provoking, is to see our enemies taking every possible precaution, in forts, vessels, and troops, so as to over run (at least) Upper Canada within six months of the declaration of war, whilst at the same moment our Government abandons the Indians...knocks off all their war establishments, stops all publick buildings both in forts and ships, and are recalling all the (or the greater part of) regular troops, so that I imagine the Canadas will soon change masters..."After recounting a battle of July 4, 1815 (though probably a muddled account of an earlier conflict) in which Americans were routed by Winnebagos and Lacques, he writes that:"The Americans rejoice to have a plausable reason to drive all the Indians across the large river Missisipi, when as they say they will only have to fight the English single handed, and I can assure you had the English been without the Indians assistance they would have made a poor appearance in Upper Canada." Finally turning to the fur trade, he pens, "Our Hudson Bay opponents has been foiled in all their violent attacks against us, however I imagine now the robed Gents. will have to settle it at last. It will of course be expensive, but it will determine if their charter is good or not...The Peace was a severe blow for them...from their own selfish views." Leith, James - Scottish fur trader (1777-1838); began in service of the XY Company until it was absorbed by the North West Company in 1804; became a chief factor when the NWC was forced to merge with the Hudson's Bay Company in 1821 by order of the court. Leith was prescient about the American treatment of its Native neighbors. (Image) Est. $2,000-3,000

SOLD for $5,000.00
Will close during Public Auction
203   [Hudsons Bay Company Retakes Red River Fort, 1817] Historically important autograph affidavit signed by J.M. Cadotte, in French, QuAppelle River, (in present-day Saskatchewan),
February 14, 1817. Cadotte avers that:On the 10th of January, at[Hudson's Bay Company Retakes Red River Fort, 1817] Historically important autograph affidavit signed by J.M. Cadotte, in French, Qu'Appelle River, (in present-day Saskatchewan), February 14, 1817. Cadotte avers that:"On the 10th of January, at approximately 1 hour before dawn, Miles McDonel (MacDonnell, Governor of the Red River settlement), Captain Arsanaut, Alex McDonel, and Louis Nolin came to take the Red River Fork Fort belonging to the N.W. Co., about thirty of the Demeurons (men of the Regiment de Meuron, sent to assist the HBC) more or less, and followed by a dozen Savages that they had roused to seize the Fort and a certain number of Canadiens, commanded by Mr. Alex McDonel, all of them are employed by the Hudson Bay Company. Mr. Nolin and some of the residents climbed over the fort's stakes and opened the gates of the Fort for the others, who were ready to enter. All of this happened while everyone was fast asleep. Immediately they entered the houses and rooms and arrested everyone...principally Mr. McLellan, N.W. Co., proprietor, after having treated him very badly by insulting him and striking him with the butt of a rifle. They tied him up with a portage strap and put him in my room; and Francois Mainvil was put in irons. Then they took...our provisions and distributed them to their people. Mr. Miles McDonel rewarded the Indians...with the very few goods he came to take...and he did the same with the rum...""Mr. McLellan's own goods and chattels were taken...and his cellar was emptied, then a call was prepared for Mr. McLellan and Seraphin Lamar and Mr. Vaudry and Mainvil, and several days later they sent the women in the fort out as free people...These gentlemen told us they were acting in accordance with the government proclamation...and also that they had roused all the Indians of Fort Lake Superior as well as the Otter Tail Sioux...and I, observing that he was exercising tyranny and brigandage...decided to do my duty." The fort in question was Fort Douglas (though some sources list it as having been burned in 1816). It had been the Hudson Bay Company's outpost at the confluence of the Red and Assinboine Rivers, the current site of Winnipeg. The Regiment de Meuron, made up of Swiss mercenaries, assisted the HBC in imposing its will, and appears to have been acting under the orders of Thomas Douglas, Earl of Selkirk, who had not long before captured nearby Fort William from the North West Company. The constant and frequently violent clashes between the HBC and the NWC led to their forced merger in 1821. (imagea) (Image) Est. $4,000-5,000

SOLD for $6,250.00
Will close during Public Auction
204   [Voyageurs], Two partly printed documents signed, engaging voyageurs, independent French Canadian fur trappers, each one page, legal folio. The first, March 17, 1818, engages
Jean Sonnet of Montreal or Laprairie with W.W. Matthews for two winte[Voyageurs], Two partly printed documents signed, engaging voyageurs, independent French Canadian fur trappers, each one page, legal folio. The first, March 17, 1818, engages Jean Sonnet of "Montreal or Laprairie" with W.W. Matthews for two winters to perform various tasks (including barrel making). He will receive 900 livres, with ten piastres and some equipment in advance. In the second, December 30, 1820, Hyacinthe la Montagne has engaged with "Messrs. William McGillivray, Simon McGillivray, Archibald Norman McLeod, Thomas Thain, and Henry Mackenzie of Montreal, doing business as McTavish, McGillivrays & Co. & Pierre de Rocheblave," represented by A.N. McLeod, to travel in one of the company's canoes and winter for three years in the dependencies in the North-West of Upper Canada, as a voyageur, for 700 livres, with eight piastres in advance. The first has light edge wear; the second is pristine. (Image) Est. $1,000-1,500

SOLD for $700.00
Will close during Public Auction
205   Back, George, Autograph letter signed by explorer and HBC trader George Back, York Factory, July 16, 1822. He writes to factor Robert McVicar at Fort Resolution, Great Slave
Lake, about his own travels and the dispositions of personnel: WilliaBack, George, Autograph letter signed by explorer and HBC trader George Back, York Factory, July 16, 1822. He writes to factor Robert McVicar at Fort Resolution, Great Slave Lake, about his own travels and the dispositions of personnel: "Williams is going to Moose (Factory)...(HBC governor Sir George) Simpson is coming in the Athabasca - Peace River and returns by the Saskachiwine...Smith is to be at Cumberland, Keith at Isle a la Crosse, Kennedy Columbia, Clarke Red River...There is however an Expedition (under command of Mr. McKenzie) going up the South Branch of the Saskachiwine." Back, George - British admiral, explorer, and fur trader (1796-1878); a young officer on Sir John Franklin's first two expeditions, he later led his own explorations, and was an advisor in the searches for Franklin after Franklin disappeared in 1845. (Image) Est. $400-500

SOLD for $4,000.00
Will close during Public Auction
206   [York Factory Minutes, 1824] Important manuscript minutes in an 8vo composition book, York Factory, July 1-5, 1824 and in the same book, of a meeting on July 10 of the same
year. Both are in the hand of James Keith, the first 6 pages, the second[York Factory Minutes, 1824] Important manuscript minutes in an 8vo composition book, York Factory, July 1-5, 1824; and in the same book, of a meeting on July 10 of the same year. Both are in the hand of James Keith, the first 6 pages, the second 40 pages. These are specifically, as the text states,and of a regular council at the same place, each "for the purpose of establishing such Rules and Regulations as may be considered expedient for conducting the business of said Department...Present: George Simpson, James Leith, Colin Robertson, Alexander Stewart, James Sutherland, John Geo. McTavish, John Clarke, George Keith, John Dugald Cameron, John Charles, John Stuart, Edward Smith, John McLoughlin, and James Keith," recorded by James Keith on July 23. There are 137 resolutions in all, of which there are a few highlights we can name here. In addition to rules on wages, furloughs, price scales, and appointments, there are important appointments. Peter W. Dease is appointed to accompany Sir John Franklin's second expedition to find the Northwest Passage, with instructions to give his full cooperation. William Brown is chosen to establish new posts in the Babine and Chilcotin regions of British Columbia. Peter Skene Ogden is appointed chief trader at Spokane house and in the Snake River District. Samuel Black is appointed to conduct the Rocky Mountain Expedition into the Finlay River district north to the Arctic. (Image) Est. $4,000-5,000

SOLD for $4,000.00
Will close during Public Auction
207   [Hudsons Bay Company, Fort Alexander, 1827] Detailed letter by chief factor John Stuart at Ft. Alexander, Bas de la Riviere (on the Winnipeg River in present-day Manitoba),
December 5, 1827. He writes the governor of the company to report his st[Hudson's Bay Company, Fort Alexander, 1827] Detailed letter by chief factor John Stuart at Ft. Alexander, Bas de la Riviere (on the Winnipeg River in present-day Manitoba), December 5, 1827. He writes the governor of the company to report his status:"We arrived here all safe the 23rd August when Mr. (Robert) McVicar arrived here the 27th...He remains here as does also the family of Chief Trader (John Lee) Lewes. When Mr. McVicar passed they were all sick and so much confined in the canoe that they would not venture to proceed farther but now I am happy to say perfectly recovered...""Mr. John Robertson and three men winter at Berings River, Mr. Geo. Setter with two others remain at Nettly Creek. McGruer and three men were sent to the Dolly and I myself with the remaining four remain here......I have heard that the Americans have established some where about Portage des Rats but it is a report that requires confirmation...If true will operate against the Dolly and besides I consider McGruer to be no more adequate to the charge of a Post than I am to be Bishop of Assiniboia...Of both Mr. Robertson and Mr. Setter I have a good opinion...""The result of our fall fishery has rendered us perfectly independent for the winter but there is a great falling off in the produce of the farm …."Letter has a large area of discoloration and some fading. John Stuart had begun with the North West Company back in 1799 and was in charge of New Caledonia beginning in 1809. By 1813 he was a partner, and joined the Hudson's Bay Company in 1821 when the NWC merged with it. (Image) Est. $1,000-1,500

SOLD for $650.00
Will close during Public Auction
208   [Hudsons Bay Company, Alexander Stewart] Excellent content autograph letter signed by chief factor Alexander Stewart of the Hudsons Bay Company, 5-13 pages, legal folio, Fort
Chipewyan (on Athabasca Lake, now in Alberta), December 28, 1827. He[Hudson's Bay Company, Alexander Stewart] Excellent content autograph letter signed by chief factor Alexander Stewart of the Hudson's Bay Company, 5-1/3 pages, legal folio, Fort Chipewyan (on Athabasca Lake, now in Alberta), December 28, 1827. He reports to the governor, chief factors, and chief traders of the company. They might have lost important ship-bound supplies for trading with Native Canadians:"had not Mr. CT Simon McGillivray...by his judicious management ultimately succeed in getting them here in due time. La Londe the conductor of the craft for this district, I look upon as no longer fit for that duty, having no more command of the men than a common steersman...I, with the able assistance of Mr. P(eter) W. Dease, whom I found here waiting with the remainder of the Mackenzie's River outfit, made various arrangements and settlements with the Indians...Both Peace River and Great Slave Lake (in present-day Northwest Territories) outfits with their people left this on the 5th and 6th."He had difficulty distributing goods to the natives, who came in greater numbers than expected, and describes a disease ("chin-cough") that has affected the families. He further mentions that non-importation of liquor has not been a problem and: "The natives of Fort Chipewyan and Great Slave Lake have been as obedient as could be expected to our orders not to destroy the beaver during the summer season...The Beaver Indians being more destitute and more in the habit of making their hunt by the gun ...I have taken the liberty to forward herewith to Mr. C.F. McTavish the requisition for outfit 1828… I mean to send off three boats, which I have no doubt contain all the packs that may be made at this place and Seal River...""There are in the district including 4 interpreters 45 men - To take out 3 boats - 21 men / Two loaded canoes - 9 men / Messrs. Smith & Stewarts Canoe - 6 men: 36 men - 9 men left. / Required for summer establishment: Great Slave Lake - 3 men, incl. interpreter / Fort Chipewyan - 3 / Fort Vermilion - 3 / Dunvegon - 3...showing a deficiency of 4...We must recourse to the hiring, if possible, some of our half-breeds or free-men in order to get out our returns."Letter has dampstain at left, causing some fading of text, but is still legible, central fold split.Alexander Stewart had originally worked for the North West Company, rising to posts of increasing responsibility. When it was merged with the HBC in 1821, he became a chief factor. Peter W. Dease, whose help Stewart praises, would become a chief factor in his own right in the following year; he later gained renown as an Arctic explorer. A truly exceptional letter, with much more detail than we can give here. (imagea) (Image) Est. $3,000-4,000

SOLD for $2,100.00
Will close during Public Auction
209   [Norway House, John MacLeod] Letter signed by MacLeod to the governor, chief factors, and chief traders of the Northern Department of the Hudsons Bay Company, Norway House (on
the Nelson River), January 5, 1830. He reports that:The men winter[Norway House, John MacLeod] Letter signed by MacLeod to the governor, chief factors, and chief traders of the Northern Department of the Hudson's Bay Company, Norway House (on the Nelson River), January 5, 1830. He reports that:"The men wintering here are as follows. 2 Canadian voyagers, 2 orkey men, The Carpenter, Blacksmith, and Summer men. The men sent to winter here having arrived so late in the Season, I had to ikeep all hadns Collecting Boat Lumbers until the Ground was frozen. I however trust the six boats I am directed to get Built here will be Complete by the opening of the navigation. Our Fall fishing was not so productive as usual owing partly to the ice having set in 20 days earlier than I have seen since I came to Norway House. So we must again have recourse to the little winipic...Our Stock of provisions now in hand is as follows, viz 90 Large Bags of Pemican, 17 Small [bags], 41 Bags Greas, 12 Kegs flour." Based on the way they sign their names, this is not the same man as the factor John M. McLeod who was stationed at Fort Vancouver and later purchased Fort Hall for the HBC. (Image) Est. $400-500

SOLD for $600.00
Will close during Public Auction
210   [Hudsons Bay Company, 1831-65] Excellent group of seven letters concerning the business of the Hudsons Bay Company, the largest and most enduring fur trading company in North
America. Includes items from Donald Ross, William McMurray, James Kei[Hudson's Bay Company, 1831-65] Excellent group of seven letters concerning the business of the Hudson's Bay Company, the largest and most enduring fur trading company in North America. Includes items from Donald Ross, William McMurray, James Keith, and others. Worth viewing. (Image) Est. $400-500

SOLD for $1,150.00
Will close during Public Auction
211   Fraser, Simon, Autograph letter signed from Cornwall, Ontario, April 20, 1835, to his longtime associate and close friend, John Stuart, chief factor of the Hudsons Bay Co.,
Care of James Keith Esq. at Lachine. Upon hearing that Stuart is goingFraser, Simon, Autograph letter signed from Cornwall, Ontario, April 20, 1835, to his longtime associate and close friend, John Stuart, chief factor of the Hudson's Bay Co., "Care of James Keith Esq. at Lachine." Upon hearing that Stuart is going home to Scotland for good, his :"tears flow copiously from my eyes that came from the heart to think that I would never see my dearest friend anymore. You served two respectable fur companies with credit to yourself and advantage to them beyond that of any other Partner of their concerns. Your zeal and ability deserved more than common recompense, yet in large and extensive concerns like these, the most noted in America, that are generally led by a few ambitious men...the merits of the worthy are often sacrificed for the agrandiseement of the worthless leaders."Fraser, Simon - Canadian fur trader and explorer (1776-1862); born to loyalist parents in Vermont; began working for the North West Company in at age 16; explored the river that bears his name in British Columbia; worked also along the Mackenzie River; at the Red River settlement, he was captured by Lord Selkirk in 1817 for involvement in the Battle of Seven Oaks (of which he was innocent) and sent to Montreal in custody; soon released, he retired from the fur trade in 1818, and settled in Cornwall; one of the last surviving men of the NWC. (Image) Est. $500-750

SOLD for $1,600.00
Will close during Public Auction
212 c   [Le Assumption] October 30th, 1836 folded letter with integral address leaf from James McDougal to John Stewart datelined Le Assumption, Lower Canada and carried by Hudsons Bay
Co. express, entering the mails with red double circle Montreal,[Le Assumption] October 30th, 1836 folded letter with integral address leaf from James McDougal to John Stewart datelined "Le Assumption, Lower Canada" and carried by Hudson's Bay Co. express, entering the mails with red double circle "Montreal, L.C./No 19, 1836" datestamp and "6"(d) rate, forwarded through the United States to Boston and then to London with two strikes of red "PAID" handstamp and manuscript "18 3/4" rate, arriving with stepped "Portsmouth/Ship Letter" and red London "12 De, 1836" backstamp, very fine. (Image) Est. $400-500

SOLD for $260.00
Will close during Public Auction
213 c   [New Caledonia, Peter Skene Ogden] folded cover and original letter datelined Western Caledonia, Feby 27th, 1837 written and signed by Peter Skene Ogden at Fort St. James on
Stuart Lake, carried by Hudsons Bay Co. canoe brigade express in the[New Caledonia, Peter Skene Ogden] folded cover and original letter datelined "Western Caledonia, Feby 27th, 1837" written and signed by Peter Skene Ogden at Fort St. James on Stuart Lake, carried by Hudson's Bay Co. canoe brigade express in the spring via the Peace River to Ft. Chipewyan on Lake Athabaska, and from there along rivers and lakes to Lake Winnipeg, then across the lake to Norway House, and then northeast on Hayes or Nelson rivers to York Factory on Hudson's Bay, where it was taken by H.B.C. ship to London, arriving with stepped "Deal/Ship Letter" handstamp and London "25 Oc, 1837" backstamp, after a long journey of seven month and twenty three days, manuscript "2/8" double rate, cover with reinforced edge wear, otherwise very fine; ex-deVolpe.An historical letter by Peter Ogden to John Stewart regarding the 1825 British-Russian Convention on the fur trade. He says it will be difficult to settle with the Russians, that they do not relish paying damages, while he is obeying orders and adhering to the Convention.Peter Skene Ogden was born in Quebec and joined the American Fur Co. sometime before 1811, and then entered the service of the Northwest Co. that same year. In 1823, after the union of 1821, he was given the rank of a chief trader in the Hudson's Bay Co. Between 1824 and 1830 he led several expeditions into the Snake Country in opposition to the Americans. In 1835 he became a chief factor, the man in charge of New Caledonia. The city of Ogden, Utah is named after him. He was one of the giants of the Canadian fur trade. (Image) Est. $5,000-7,500

SOLD for $5,250.00
Will close during Public Auction
214   [Market Report, 1844] Great market content letter to Asa P. Culburt of Cowansville, Canada East (now Quebec), written by Vilas & Noyes of Burlington, VT, Nobember 23, 1844.
They give market news on the fur trade, including pelts, wool, furs, red[Market Report, 1844] Great market content letter to Asa P. Culburt of Cowansville, Canada East (now Quebec), written by Vilas & Noyes of Burlington, VT, Nobember 23, 1844. They give market news on the fur trade, including pelts, wool, furs, red fox, marten, mink, muskrat, housecats (good ones are worth 10 cents), bearskin, cross fox, raccoon, otter, and other items. An uncommonly informative letter, with the usual mix of enthusiasm and caution of the buyer. (Image) Est. $400-500

SOLD for $525.00
Will close during Public Auction
HUDSON’S BAY COMPANY MAILS
Lot Symbol CatNo. Lot Description CV or Estimate
215 c   [Michipicoten, Alexander Hay] folded letter with integral address leaf datelined Michipicoten, 27th August, 1837 to Dingwall, Scotland, carried by Montreal canoe brigade,
entering the mails with red MontrealNov 8 datestamp and 6(d) rate, f[Michipicoten, Alexander Hay] folded letter with integral address leaf datelined "Michipicoten, 27th August, 1837" to Dingwall, Scotland, carried by Montreal canoe brigade, entering the mails with red "Montreal/Nov 8" datestamp and "6"(d) rate, forwarded through the United States with two striked of red "paid" handstamp and "18 3/4" (c) rate to Boston, thence by ship to England arriving with stepped "Ship Letter/Liverpool" backstamp, manuscript "1/4" collect and red "Dec 12, 1831" backstamp, "Add/1/2d" charged when crossing the Scottish border, very fine.Alexander M. Hay joined the Hudson Bay Company in 1831, having come from Scotland to York Factory on Hudson Bay. In the letter he describes the voyage, by canoe to the Red River settlement and his short stay as a clerk. He mentions several important traders and factors in the fur trade, especially the Simpsons. Sir George Simpson was the governor of the H.B. Co., in charge of all the affairs of the company in North America - probably the most important person in Canada. Simpson had gone back to England and got a bride and this was their honeymoon voyage to the Red River. The piano mentioned was brought over from England and was the first one in that part of Canada. Hay describes his voyage by snowshoes and canoe to the Island of Mishipicoton in Lake Superior. Here he learns that he has been assigned to a post in Lake Huron, where, as it turns out, he will spend the next 10 years as a clerk. At the time of the letter he was about 21 years of age. Simpson kept a "character book" about personal who worked for the company and wrote this about Hay: "has been the greater part of the past two winters on snowshoes." (Image) Est. $750-1,000

SOLD for $800.00
Will close during Public Auction
216 c   [Fort Vancouver, John Townsend] eastbound folded letter with integral address leaf from John Kirk Townsend datelined Fort Vancouver, Oregon Territory, Dec. 18th, 1836
(transparently for 1835), carried by Hudsons Bay Co. express up the Colu[Fort Vancouver, John Townsend] eastbound folded letter with integral address leaf from John Kirk Townsend datelined "Fort Vancouver, Oregon Territory, Dec. 18th, 1836" (transparently for 1835), carried by Hudson's Bay Co. express up the Columbia River to Boat Encampment, then overland through the Athabaska Pass to Fort Edomonton, thence by the annual spring H.B.C. canoe brigade express to Montreal, entering the regular mails with red double circle "Montreal, L.C./Au 13, 1836" datestamp, matching "Paid" handstamp and manuscript "6"(d) rate, forwarded to Philadelphia, where the post office rated it "25" collect and scrolled out the Canadian charges, fresh and very fine.John Kirk Townsend, the writer of the letter, with his fellow Philadelphian, naturalist Thomas Nuttall, joined Nathaniel J. Wyeth's expedition and the annual caravan, to the Fur Trade Rendezvous of 1834 at Ham's Fork in what is now S.W. Wyoming. After the Rendezvous he continued west with Wyeth, arriving at Fort Vancouver on September 16, 1834.Townsend was an Ornithologist, second only to John James Audubon in the study of the birds of America. He wrote the story of his overland trip to Oregon, Narrative Of A Journey Across The Rocky Mountains, Philadelphia 1839 (see lot #424). Part of this letter is quoted in the book including a visit from an old Indian Chief whose "sunken eyes sparkle like diamonds set in bronze." He also mentions that his Indian name is Kalakla tiee meaning Bird Chief. (Image) Est. $3,000-4,000

SOLD for $8,500.00
Will close during Public Auction
217 c   [Fort Simpson, Robert Campbell] March 15th, 1837 folded letter, from present day North West Territory) with integral address leaf from Robert Campbell addressed to John Stewart
En Route datelined Fort Simpson McKenzie River, 15th March, 1837[Fort Simpson, Robert Campbell] March 15th, 1837 folded letter, from present day North West Territory) with integral address leaf from Robert Campbell addressed to John Stewart "En Route" datelined "Fort Simpson McKenzie River, 15th March, 1837" carried by Hudson's Bay Co. canoe brigade express to York Factory on Hudson's Bay, then by H.B.C. ship to London, arriving with stepped "Deal/Ship Letter" handstamp, manuscript "1/4" collect and red London "25 Oct, 1837" backstamp, reinforced edge splits, very fine; the earliest recorded cover from the present day Northwest Territory interior to a foreign destination; ex-deVolpe and Steinhart.Robert Campbell, fur trader and explorer who discovered the source of the Yukon River, writes: "At this place and Fort de Liard provisions have not been for some years past so plenty...Mr Bell had by accounts 31st Jan. furs in store to the value of about $3000 - Fort Norman much the same as last. Fort de Laird is on the increase...we have but very few rats this year but martens, beaver and lynx are better and more valuable...the Marten Lake Indians who have the last two years visited us pretty regular and...have brought us about 1500 martens...you are already aware of the disasters...Mr. Hutchinson and party...back from the west branch last summer as they had commenced their voyage for Dease's Lake...I have volunteered my services for the expedition going to re-establish in that quarter...I am to start with my party latter end of this month for Fort de Liard and to proceed from there as early as the state of navigation will permit..." (Image) Est. $3,000-4,000

SOLD for $5,000.00
Will close during Public Auction
218 c   [En Route, AM McCloud] folded Autograph Letter Signed with integral address leaf of A.M. McLeod datelined En Route, August 7th, 1838 written while with the Hudsons Bay Co.
canoe brigade express traveling from Fort Chipewyan on Lake Athabasca t[En Route, AM McCloud] folded Autograph Letter Signed with integral address leaf of A.M. McLeod datelined "En Route, August 7th, 1838" written while with the Hudson's Bay Co. canoe brigade express traveling from Fort Chipewyan on Lake Athabasca to York Factory on Hudson's Bay via Norway House to Chief Factor John Stewart in London, carried by H.B.C. ship to England arriving with stepped "Deal/Ship Letter" handstamp, manuscript 1/4" collect and red London "18 Oc, 1838" backstamp, fresh and extremely fine; ex-deVolpe.The letter, from Alexander Roderick McLeod, a Chief Factor with the Hudson's Bay Co. in charge of the Athabasca district when this letter was written, comments on the years poor results due to a bad season and: "...there is still a much greater evil lurking about, i.e. the small Pox, it has (caused) awful ravages among the Plains Tribes in the Saskatchewan...vaccination has been resorted to, as the most effectual means of avoiding the Contagion...it is considered expedient that I should see most of the Post fall & spring, which I admit is very proper, but it is attended with inconveniences, arising from my being so much out of the way, when the Expresses pass and repass..." (Image) Est. $2,000-3,000

SOLD for $1,400.00
Will close during Public Auction
219 c   [Township of Zone to Donald Ross] folded letter of George McBeath with integral address leaf datelined Township of Zone, County Kent, Western District, Canada West, April 12,
1844 and addressed to Mr. Donald Ross York Factory Hudsons Bay, to t[Township of Zone to Donald Ross] folded letter of George McBeath with integral address leaf datelined "Township of Zone, County Kent, Western District, Canada West, April 12, 1844" and addressed to "Mr. Donald Ross York Factory Hudsons Bay, to the care of the Agent of the honorable Hudsons Bay Company at the Sault Ste. Maries, forwarded by Sandwich and Detroit, the postmaster at Detroit are respectfully requested to forward this letter to Lake Superior," entered the mails with double circle "Mosa, U.C./11th April, 1844" postmark and matching "Paid" handstamp, crossed with line with red straightline "Windsor, C.W./12 Apr 1844" backstamp and entered the U.S. mails with blue "Detroit, Mich./Apr 13" datestamp, then forwarded to the Hudson's Bay Co. at Sault Ste. Marie and rated "7" cents collect, thence by H.B.C. fur expresses to York Factory, docketed as having been received on August 8th, very fine. The "Zone" was special district for the Indians of the Moravian Mission.Donald Ross was born in Scotland in 1797, joined the H.B.C. in 1816, became secretary to George Simpson in 1826, went to the Columbia River with him in 1828, became Chief Trader in 1829 and Chief Factor in 1839. He was in charge of Norway House from 1830-51 and died 19 November, 1851. (Image) Est. $1,500-2,000

SOLD for $1,800.00
Will close during Public Auction
220 c   [Norway House, Donald Ross] August 12th, 1844 folded Autograph Letter Signed with integral address leaf from Donald Ross datelined Norway House, 12th Aug 1844 and carried by
Hudsons Bay Co. canoe brigade express up the Nelson river to York Fac[Norway House, Donald Ross] August 12th, 1844 folded Autograph Letter Signed with integral address leaf from Donald Ross datelined "Norway House, 12th Aug 1844" and carried by Hudson's Bay Co. canoe brigade express up the Nelson river to York Factory on Hudson's Bay, thence by H.B.C. ship to England, arriving with stepped "Ramsgate/Ship Letter," manuscript "8" collect and red London "16 Oc, 1844" backstamp, arriving at its destination with boxed "Forres/Oc 18, 1844" backstamp, very fine.This letter by Donald Ross, a H.B.C. Chief Factor, gives the British view to the controversy over the Oregon boundary in the summer of 1844. For many years previous Great Britain and the United States had jointly occupied the Oregon country, by treaty, which by a years notice could be terminated by either party. The boundary from the great lakes to the continental divide was at the 49th parallel. The U.S. wanted it to continue northerly on the continental divide to the 54th parallel and thence to the Pacific. The British wanted all the land north of the Columbia River. Sir George Simpson had told the British parliament that if they did get the Oregon country, they might as well let the Americans have all of it. The U.S. gave up the "54 40 or fight" cry and offered to settle on the 49th parallel, which was finally agreed to in 1846. (Image) Est. $1,000-1,500

SOLD for $850.00
Will close during Public Auction

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