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The Brandon Collection of Confederate States, Part 2 continued...

Trans-Mississippi Express Mail
Lot Sym. Lot Description  
546 c Image5c Blue, Stone 2 (4). Two singles, each with mostly full margins, touching in places, deep rich color, pen cancels, used with horizontal pair and single 10c Greenish Blue, Die B (12), pair with large margins to clear at left, single with huge margins to slightly in at top, different shades, all stamps tied by three strikes of "Shreveport La. Aug. 29, 1864" double-circle datestamp on small bluish gray cover ("Adhesive Envelope" embossed seal on flap) with faint address to Mrs. (Mary?) T. Whitmire in Greenville Court House, S.C., prepaid for 40c Trans-Mississippi Express Rate, carried east from Shreveport by a post office appointed courier, upper part of top backflap removed, minor toning and edgewear

VERY FINE. THIS IS THE ONLY RECORDED USE OF THE 5-CENT BLUE LITHOGRAPH ON A TRANS-MISSISSIPPI EXPRESS COVER. THE MIXED-ISSUE COMBINATION FOR THE 40-CENT GOVERNMENT EXPRESS RATE IS SPECTACULAR AND UNIQUE, MAKING THIS ONE OF THE MOST OUTSTANDING GENERAL ISSUE COVERS EXTANT.

This cover was postmarked on August 29, 1864, at Shreveport, Louisiana, the location of the Confederate States Trans-Mississippi Department. It is dated about three months after the Union's Red River Campaign (March 10-May 22, 1864) against the Confederate forces along the Red River in Louisiana. The campaign was a dismal failure for the Federal army, and the outcome basically ended the military career of Major General Nathaniel P. Banks.

At this point in the war, eastbound Trans-Mississippi mail had to cross via ad hoc secondary routes further south near Simmsport and Red River Landing. The unusual combination of stamps on this cover and the presence of pen cancels on the 5c Lithographs, but not the 10c Engraved stamps, suggests that it was brought to the Shreveport post office with only 10c postage (the two 5c stamps), and the additional 30c postage (three 10c stamps) was applied there to make up the required 40c rate for government express service across the river. Further supporting this theory is the presence of writing (in a different hand than address) under the 10c pair, which we cannot read but probably indicates the need for additional postage. Thus, this is probably a "held for postage" cover, with the stamps applied at two different points in time.

Illustrated in Shenfield book (page 90). Ex Shenfield (probably also ex Antrim). (Image)

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E. $ 7,500-10,000

SOLD for $17,500.00
Will close during Public Auction
547   Image20c Green, Diagonal Half (13d). Four halves -- bisected from two 20c stamps (two at left from one, and two at right from the other) -- paying 40c Trans-Mississippi Express Rate on piece with manuscript route directive "Express via Shreveport La." at upper right, each pair of bisects tied by clear strike of "Tyler Tex. May 9" (1864) circular datestamp, "JUN/30" handstamp (probably applied on arrival east of the Mississippi River based on the date), affixed to a 3c Red Nesbitt entire that closely matches the laid lines and shade of piece, an address has been added to recreate cover

VERY FINE PIECE. AN EXTRAORDINARY CONFEDERATE FRANKING WITH FOUR HALVES OF TWO BISECTED 20-CENT GENERAL ISSUE STAMPS PAYING THE 40-CENT TRANS-MISSISSIPPI EXPRESS RATE.

The writing of the sender's route directive very closely matches the writing on a cover from the Dr. Starr correspondence, which was sent from Tyler, Texas (Siegel Sale 1016, lot 579). The logical explanation for this cover is that the sender prepared bisects for the prevailing 10c rate, but used four of them to pay the 40c Trans-Mississippi Express rate on this piece of mail.

Ex Haas. With 1980 P.F. certificate (Image)

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E. $ 4,000-5,000

SOLD for $3,500.00
Will close during Public Auction
548 c Image10c Blue, Die A (11). Horizontal strip of four, huge top margin, large at right, mostly clear at bottom to just in at left, tied by two strikes of "Fayetteville N.C." circular datestamp with inverted date slug ("6" and "1863" readable, probably "Nov" month) on buff cover to Lt. Charles W. Broadfoot, care of General Holmes, Camp Bragg, Arkansas, westbound 40c Trans-Mississippi Express use, sender's route directive "Via Brandon or Meridian Miss.", slightly reduced at left where small piece has been added to make edge even

VERY FINE. AN EXTREMELY RARE AND UNUSUAL TRANS-MISSISSIPPI EXPRESS COVER ADDRESSED TO A CONFEDERATE MILITARY INSTALLATION IN ARKANSAS.

At the time this cover was mailed, the addressee, Charles Wetmore Broadfoot (1842-1919), was a 1st lieutenant and aide-de-camp on General Theophilus H. Holmes's staff at Camp Bragg in Arkansas. In 1864 he was promoted to lieutenant-colonel with the 70th Regiment, First N.C. Junior Reserves. Although the month is difficult to read in the datestamp, the "1863" year is clear, and this is an early example of the government's 40c Trans-Mississippi Express rate, which commenced in October 1863.

Ex Wiseman (Image)

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E. $ 3,000-4,000

SOLD for $4,500.00
Will close during Public Auction
549 c Image20c Green (13). Horizontal pair, large even margins, deep shade, faint diagonal crease in left stamp, lightly cancelled by double-struck "Charlotte" (N.C.?) dateless circular handstamp (only the letters "CHARLOT" are discernible) on red and blue on yellow Standing Liberty and Flag Captured Union Patriotic cover with soldier's endorsement "From J. F. Holt, Co. D, 6th Tex. Smith's Brigade, Cleburn's Division, Army Tenn." and addressed to "Miss Nellie Wilkinson, Matagorda Co., Caney P.O., Texas" with route directive "Via Meridian & Brandon Miss.", 40c Trans-Mississippi Express Rate, either missent to Matagorda or possibly brought there first en route to the small town of Caney about 40 miles northeast, "Matagorda Txs. Apr. 6" (1864) circular datestamp ("6" in manuscript), backflap removed, small edge tears and a few erosion spots of little significance

VERY FINE. A REMARKABLE CONFEDERATE TRANS-MISSISSIPPI EXPRESS COVER SENT BY AN OFFICER IN THE ARMY OF TENNESSEE, USING A CAPTURED UNION PATRIOTIC ENVELOPE.

The 6th Texas Infantry, known as the "Matagorda Coast Guards," was mustered into service in 1861 and served throughout the entire war. In January 1863 the 6th Texas fought in the battle of Arkansas Post (or Fort Hindman), where a large number of its members were captured, including Lieut. Holt (he was exchanged six months later). The 6th Texas was reorganized in July 1863 and transferred to the Army of Tennessee.

Another cover from Lieut. Holt -- an identical Liberty and Flag captured envelope, prepaid 40c for Trans-Mississippi Express service -- was mailed by him at the time of the Battle of Chickamauga, in November 1863, to his mother in Matagorda (ex Everett, Siegel Sale 754, lot 450). After the battle most of the troops involved retreated to the area around Dalton, Georgia, and spent the winter there. This cover was sent from Georgia by Lieut. Holt in early March 1864. The pair of 20c stamps is the only indication of postage on the cover, but because the datestamp does not tie the stamps and seems to be a Charlotte N.C. marking, we must offer this "as is", with no assurance that the stamps originated on the cover.

Krieger Census No. E21. Ex Weatherly and Antrim (Image)

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E. $ 2,000-3,000

SOLD for $4,250.00
Will close during Public Auction
550 c ImageE. H. Cushing Express. Black on green newsprint label, C.S.A. Catalog Type A (without date), affixed to back of cover to Dr. George W. Archer, General Hospital, Richmond Va., 5c Light Blue, De La Rue (6), horizontal pair, irregular margins, large to slightly in with scissors cuts at top, tied by "Chattanooga Ten. Oct. 6, 1862" circular datestamp, carried by Cushing from Texas and put into the mails at Chattanooga for Richmond, Archer was an assistant surgeon at General Hospital No. 1, pencil "Milt, Aug. 23 '62" referring to the origin date, the front and back of cover separated and rejoined along seam to show label

VERY FINE. AN EXTREMELY RARE EXAMPLE OF THE TYPE I LABEL, THE RAREST OF THE VARIOUS TYPES USED ON TRANS-MISSISSIPPI MAIL CARRIED BY E. H. CUSHING.

Edward H. Cushing, publisher of the Houston Daily Telegraph, commenced his express service after New Orleans fell to Federal forces in April 1862. In an effort to improve communications between Texas regiments in the East and their relations at home, as well as secure safe lines for news transmission, Cushing established routes with pony riders and other means of conveyance necessary to cross the Federal lines. Cushing's agents affixed labels to the backs of envelopes carried by express. These were intended to inform patrons and advertise the service. Approximately 20 examples (of all varieties) are believed to exist. This type is much rarer than the larger labels.

Ex Engel (probably bought from Antrim collection handled by Bill Bogg of New England Stamp Co.). With 1973 C.S.A. certificate (Image)

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E. $ 5,000-7,500

SOLD for $15,500.00
Will close during Public Auction
551 c ImageE. H. Cushing Express. Black on white newsprint label, C.S.A. Catalog Type C with April 2 date -- last lines read "We are all right in Texas. The Yankees have evacuated Indianola. Spring backward, but it will all be right at harvest" -- affixed to back of brown cover originating west of the Mississippi River and addressed to Mrs. S. R. Markham in Liberty Miss., no postal markings, trace of stamp peeled off at upper right, we suspect the addressee removed an uncancelled stamp and used it, label and cover in excellent condition, an outstanding exhibit item, the Type C label comes with different dates and news reports, this April 2 version is extremely rare, ex Weatherly (Image)

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E. $ 1,000-1,500

SOLD for $2,900.00
Will close during Public Auction
552 c ImageArthur H. Edey's Express. Black on white newsprint label "FORWARDED BY/ARTHUR H. EDEY, Agent, Fifth Reg't Texas Volunteers." affixed to back ("tied" by waterstains) of brown homemade cover originating from Army of Northern Virginia east of the Mississippi and carried by Edey into Texas, delivered by courier to Mrs. Bettie Clay at Independence Tex., receipt docketing "Recd Aug 22 1862. By Mr. Petterson" provides documentation of date and method of transport west of the Mississippi, uncancelled 5c Blue, Stone 2 (4) and 5c Light Blue, De La Rue (6) tied by waterstains, front and back separated and rejoined for display

ONE OF EIGHT RECORDED COVERS WITH THE EDEY LABEL, OF WHICH HALF ARE AFFIXED TO THE BACKS. EDEY'S EXPRESS OPERATED BRIEFLY FROM JUNE UNTIL LATE OCTOBER 1862.

Arthur H. Edey enlisted as a Private in Co. A, 5th Regiment, Texas Infantry, on July 19, 1861, at Houston. He was detailed as agent for the regiment in Richmond on Feb. 7, 1862, and in that capacity provided mail service between members of the regiment serving east of the Mississippi and their correspondents back home. The earliest of the eight recorded Edey’s Express covers is dated June 1862, and the latest is October 1862. Edey was wounded and captured at Gettysburg on July 2, 1863, and sent to Fort Wood, New York Harbor. He was paroled on April 15, 1865.

This cover was sent by Tacitus T. Clay, who was promoted to captain in the 5th Texas Regiment in October 1861 and served as acting lieutenant-colonel and colonel at various times during 1863 and 1864. Clay was wounded at Gaines’ Mill, the Wilderness, and Darbytown Road -- as a result of his injuries at Darbytown, Clay’s leg was amputated. (Image)

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E. $ 2,000-3,000

SOLD for $4,500.00
Will close during Public Auction
553 c ImageJ. M. Barksdale's Arkansas Express. "Washington Ark. Dec. 7" circular datestamp with "10" C.S.A. rate handstamp on cover with soldier's endorsement in blue "Soldier's Letter, Alex. E. Spence Capt., Co 'B' 1st Ark Regt" and addressed to Mr. Solomon Spence in Arkadelphia Ark., sender's notation "Paid 1.00" for express fee, the letter contained in this cover (which no longer accompanies) is datelined "Camp 1st Ark Regt, near Tuscumbia Ala. Nov. 11th 1864" and states "Mr. Barksdale the courier for Reynolds Ark Brig has just arrived bringing letters from Arks & says he will wait here one hour for us to write back so by being brief I can write to you...", manuscript note on back "Answer at Washington by December 27th J. M. Barksdale", reduced slightly at right

VERY FINE. THIS IS ONE OF FOUR RECORDED COVERS CARRIED BY ONE OF THE ARKANSAS EXPRESSES, AND IT IS THE ONLY COVER WITH PROOF OF HANDLING BY BARKSDALE'S EXPRESS.

This cover was the subject of an article by Francis J. Crown Jr. ("A New Private Express Cover", Confederate Philatelist, Jul-Sep. 2007, No. 354). We will draw on that article for this catalogue entry.

The sender, Capt. Alexander E. Spence, served in Company B (Clark County Volunteers), 1st Arkansas Infantry. Spence was promoted to captain on January 20, 1863. The expressman, J. M. Barksdale, was enlisted on Aug. 4, 1861, at Crane Creek, Missouri, and served in Company H, 2nd Arkansas Mounted Rifles. He was wounded on Mar. 7, 1862, at Elk Horn Ark and discharged on Dec. 17, 1862.

The following is an excerpt from Mark Christ's book Getting Used to Being Shot At: The Spence Family Civil War Letters: "Noted Arkansas jurist Uriah M. Rose, on a trip to Richmond in his capacity as the official historiographer of the state's Confederate government, met Barksdale. He described the courier thus: 'I had for a companion during my journey across the Mississippi River a most worthy and agreeable person, whose name was Barksdale; a resident of the State of Mississippi, a private enlisted in the Southern Army, then detailed to carry letters back and forth across the Mississippi River for officers and soldiers in the field. He was a very excellent and a very sensible person, and had a perfect knowledge of every foot of the way. Every one was glad to see him coming, as they expected to receive letters by him from their friends and relatives who were in daily peril of their lives, or from loved ones at home. Every one on the road knew him, and, so kind and obliging was he in disposition, that everyone seemed to be his friend. He was probably thirty-five years old, was not highly educated, but had a sound judgment about men and things, joined with simple and agreeable manners.'"

The Barksdale Express began operating no later than the summer of 1863 and was still carrying mail in late 1864. Barksdale carried mail from Arkansas soldiers in Reynolds' Arkansas Brigade to Washington, Arkansas, where they were posted in the Confederate mail. The express charge for a letter to Arkansas (westbound) was $1.00, as noted on the cover offered here. Mail from Arkansas to the soldiers (eastbound) was apparently carried free.

Illustrated in Special Routes (p. 113). Ex Walske. With 2006 C.S.A. certificate stating "genuine J. M. Barksdale private express use." (Image)

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E. $ 2,000-3,000

SOLD for $5,250.00
Will close during Public Auction
554 c ImageE. W. Black's Arkansas Express. Manuscript endorsement "by express Black" and "Paid $1.00" on cover to Hillsboro Ark., 10c Greenish Blue, Die B (12c), large margins, tied by "Washington Ark. Oct. 21" circular datestamp, note on back: "I will leave Hampton Calhoun Country on the 6th of Nov have your letter there by that time and I will take it to the Army. EWB", slightly reduced with repaired pieces at bottom, bottom flap added (affecting only two words in message)

ONLY FOUR COVERS ARE KNOWN THAT WERE CARRIED BY ONE OF THE ARKANSAS EXPRESS OPERATIONS ACROSS THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER. THIS IS THE ONLY ONE WITH A BLACK'S EXPRESS ENDORSEMENT.

Elias W. Black was a soldier in the 4th Arkansas Regiment who was discharged for disability in June 1862. He operated an express between Arkansas and McNair's Arkansas Brigade of the Army of Tennessee. He charged $1.00 on letters to Arkansas, but return letters were apparently free. He carried his westbound letters to Washington, Arkansas, where he sent them onward in the Confederate mails. Return letters to the Brigade were sent under cover to his attention at Hampton, Arkansas (see Stefan T. Jaronski, "Another Private Trans-Mississippi Express Service Uncovered", Confederate Philatelist, No. 241). Certain covers from the Spence correspondence previously thought to have been carried by E. W. Black are now attributed to Barksdale's Express (see lot XXX).

Illustrated in Special Routes (p. 114). Ex Telep, Everett and Walske (Image)

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E. $ 2,000-3,000

SOLD for $4,250.00
Will close during Public Auction
555 c ImageSturdivant's Express. 10c Greenish Blue, Die B (12c), large margins, slight crease, tied by "Marshall Tex." double-circle datestamp (February 1864) on buff cover with sender's endorsement "Per Mr. I. W. Sturdivant Paid $1.00" and addressed to Mrs. E. W. Foscue in Jefferson Tex., soldier's endorsement "J. S. Foscue, Co. H, 7th Texas Infantry" at lower left, long tear at lower left corner, reduced at left and edgewear

FINE. AN EXCEEDINGLY RARE "ONE-MAN EXPRESS" COVER CARRIED WESTWARD ACROSS THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER BY I. W. STURDIVANT AND PUT INTO THE MAILS IN MARSHALL, TEXAS.

Less than five covers carried by Sturdivant are reported, all of which travelled westward across the Mississippi River into Texas. The sender, Sgt. J. S. Foscue, joined the 7th Texas Infantry on Oct. 1, 1861, at Marshall, Texas.

Illustrated in Special Routes (p. 115). Ex Birkinbine and Walske (Image)

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E. $ 3,000-4,000

SOLD for $4,250.00
Will close during Public Auction

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