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Robert A. Siegel Auction Galleries, Inc. Sale: 1211

United States
1847 Issue to and from British North America

Sale No: 1211
Lot No: 134
Symbol: C
Cat No: 2

image 10¢ 1847 cover from Canada to United States with 3-pence Canadian ferriage rate paid in cash

10¢ Black (2), three large margins, clear to just touched at bottom, plate scratches in right margin, tied by manuscript on folded letter from Kingston, Canada, to New York City, red "Kingston U.C. JA 23, 1850" circular datestamp, red "Cape Vincent N.Y. Jan. 30" circular datestamp, interesting contents asks for information on transportation to California, Very Fine and extremely rare use, the 3p ferriage rate applied to mail crossing between Cape Vincent and Kingston, which required two ferries and a land crossing--the ferriage rate applied until the new U.S.-Canadian postal treaty took effect on April 6, 1851--lots 129 and 130 in this sale show examples of the rate from the U.S. to Canada, this example from Canada is extremely rare, one 5¢ cover and two 10¢ covers are verified examples of this rate in USPCS census, ex Makepeace, Hart and Hackmey (Image)

E. $ 2,000-3,000

Openings not Provided
Sold...US$ 1,500.00

Closed..Oct-29-2019, 14:26:42 EST
Sold For 1500

Sale No: 1211
Lot No: 135
Symbol: C
Cat No: 2

image The only 10¢ 1847 cover from Canada with Whitehall, New York, "STEAM•BOAT" straightline

10¢ Black (2), large margins all around, tiny negligible tear at bottom left, used on folded letter from Montreal, Canada, to New York City, letter datelined "Montreal 5th July 1848," carried by Lake Champlain Transportation Co. steamboat to post office at Whitehall, New York, where stamp was cancelled by bold "5" rate handstamp and tied by two strikes of "STEAM•BOAT" straightline handstamp, third full strike at left, letter concerns shipping salt from Turks Island and loading vessels with lumber for return, Very Fine, a remarkable cover carried by steamboat from Montreal to Whitehall on Lake Champlain--covers to Canada with "Steamboat" markings are very rare, but this is the only recorded cover from Canada, the Whitehall "STEAM• BOAT" used with the "5" rate handstamp is recorded on two other intra-U.S. 1848 stampless covers (PhilaMercury nos. 1584 and 27044), ex Wolcott, Sweet, Haas and Boker (Image)

E. $ 3,000-4,000

Openings not Provided
Sold...US$ 6,250.00

Closed..Oct-29-2019, 14:27:37 EST
Sold For 6250

Sale No: 1211
Lot No: 136
Symbol: C
Cat No: 1

image U.S. Express Mail route agent's datestamp on 5¢ 1847 cover to New Brunswick

5¢ Red Brown (1), horizontal pair, large margins to barely in at right, tied by red grid cancels, matching "U.S. Express Mail N. York N.Y. May 11" (1850) circular datestamp on blue folded letter to St. John, New Brunswick, sender's route directive "pr Favors Express" crossed out and "pr Mail" and "paid" written at top left, manuscript "7" pence due marking, blue St. Andrews (May 16) and black St. John (May 17) backstamps, Very Fine, a rare use to New Brunswick, the USPCS census lists only five confirmed covers to New Brunswick with two 5¢ 1847 Issue stamps, and only 15 covers total (though two may not exist, which would lower the count to 13, and several are fronts only), ex Krug and Boker (Image)

E. $ 1,000-1,500

Openings not Provided
Sold...US$ 800.00

Closed..Oct-29-2019, 14:28:12 EST
Sold For 800

Sale No: 1211
Lot No: 137
Symbol: C
Cat No: 2

image A beautiful and very rare cover to New Brunswick with the 10¢ 1847 Issue

10¢ Black (2), Position 14R, large even margins, tied by red grid cancel, matching light strike of "New-York Jan. 31" (1850) circular datestamp on blue folded letter to Sackville, New Brunswick, sender's notation "paid to the lines", neat manuscript "9" pence due marking, St. John (February 5) and Sackville (February 7) backstamps, lightly cleaned, Extremely Fine, a gorgeous 10¢ 1847 on a cover to New Brunswick, the USPCS census records only 15 covers to New Brunswick (two may not exist, which would lower the count to 13), only five have the 10¢ stamp, ex Grunin, Garrett and Boker, Ward backstamp (Image)

E. $ 1,500-2,000

Openings not Provided
Sold...US$ 2,200.00

Closed..Oct-29-2019, 14:29:32 EST
Sold For 2200

Sale No: 1211
Lot No: 138
Symbol: C
Cat No: 2

image One of two recorded (and verified) covers with the 1847 Issue used from any of the British Maritime Provinces--an outstanding postal history artifact

10¢ Black (2), large margins all around, tied by red "Robbinston Me. Apr. 10" (1851) circular datestamp on folded letter from St. John, New Brunswick, to New York City, letter from Wiggins & Son to D. S. Kennedy datelined "St. John NB 8 Apl 1851", red "St. John N.B. Paid AP 8, 1851" origination datestamp, second clearer strike of Robbinston circular datestamp at left, manuscript "7" pence marking for Canadian postage was paid in cash as confirmed by manuscript "Pd SW&Son" notation next to the marking, blue St. Andrews circular datestamp on back (April 9), crossed border by land route between St. Andrews and Robbinston

Very Fine cover; stamp has vertical crease and small tear caused by file fold, but this is immaterial considering the great rarity of this cover--this is one of two verifiable 1847 covers originating in New Brunswick (or any of the Maritime Provinces), and only this cover has New Brunswick postmarks.

In an article by David D'Alessandris ("1847 Covers to the Maritime Provinces: An Update," Chronicle 238), this cover is pictured and described, with the following comment: "Notably, this cover was mailed just after the effective date for the U.S. postal treaty with Canada [April 6, 1851]. Had the cover originated in Canada, rather than New Brunswick, the 10¢ stamp would have paid the cover to destination, rather than only paying the United States portion of the postage."

An appendix to the D'Alessandris article lists four 1847 covers originating in the Maritime Provinces, but only two can be verified with photographs, both originating from New Brunswick: the cover offered here (USPCS census nos. 36) and a cover with Eastport, Maine, "SHIP" and "2" handstamps, but no New Brunswick markings (census no. 1956, ex Mirsky, Sale 1023, lot 2478).

The other two covers listed by D'Alessandris are USPCS census nos. 305, dated 8/17/1847, with a 10¢ from St. John N.B., Kennedy correspondence; and no. 230, dated 6/28/1851, with a 10¢ bisect from Halifax, Nova Scotia, Kennedy correspondence. Neither of these two has been photographed or verified with corroborating records, and we believe they have either been discredited as fakes or misentered in the census data. The bisect cover might be one certified as a fake (P.F. nos. 197546/272314), which has a Hartford June 28 datestamp and is addressed to D. S. Kennedy (this date and addressee match USPCS census no. 230).

Ex Dr. John L. Robertson and Joseph Hackmey. (Image)

E. $ 7,500-10,000

Openings not Provided
Sold...US$ 8,000.00

Closed..Oct-29-2019, 14:30:33 EST
Sold For 8000

Sale No: 1211
Lot No: 139
Symbol: C
Cat No: 1, 2

image A spectacular 5¢ and 10¢ 1847 combination cover to Nova Scotia by Cunard packet

5¢ Brown, 10¢ Black (1, 2), 5¢ large margins to clear, two 10¢ (Positions 53R and 52R) with large margins to just in, slightly overlapping, manuscript m-shaped cancels, blue "Baltimore Md. May 28" (1849) circular datestamp on blue folded cover from Thomas R. Matthews to Robert Noble in Halifax, Nova Scotia, 5¢ tied by scarce "s/d 1/ 1-1/2 Cy" in circle due handstamp (1sh sterling=1sh1-1/2d currency), sender's directive "pr. Steamer Canada via N. York", "UD. STATES/HALIFAX/JU 2 1849" Halifax receiving backstamp

Very Fine; slight toning along vertical file fold away from stamps. This is a rare and spectacular combination 5¢ and 10¢ 1847 Issue franking, used on a cover to Nova Scotia and intended (in error) to pay the 24¢ treaty rate applicable to letters carried from the United States to Great Britain via Halifax, Nova Scotia. To correct the USPCS 1847 census, there are only two covers with 5¢ and 10¢ 1847 combinations addressed to Robert Noble. The listing for a third cover with a 5/24/1849 date (no. 2787) is unverified and probably duplicates the entry for this cover (no. 2788).

The Noble 1847 combination covers, mailed after the Retaliatory Rate period, reflect confusion over how the new 24¢ U.S.-British treaty rate was to be applied to letters to the Maritime Provinces. This situation is explained by David D'Alessandris ("1847 Covers to the Maritime Provinces: An Update," Chronicle 238):

In January 1848, the Cunard Line began operating a second transatlantic route between Liverpool and New York. Like the Liverpool to Boston route, the Liverpool to New York steamers stopped en route in both directions in Halifax. However, by September 1850, Cunard stopped calling at Halifax on the Liverpool to New York route, probably to increase the speed of the crossing to better compete with United States steamship lines.

As noted earlier, the Cunard Line rates to Halifax were not widely known, were not listed in the United States Mail and Post Office Assistant until 1863, and were not listed in the Postal Laws and Regulations until the 1866 edition. Moreover, the Cunard packet rates to Halifax, after the implementation of the U.S.-U.K. postal treaty, were illogical. Letters destined for the same Cunard steamer paid different postage based upon the destination. A letter to England could be paid 24¢ to destination, but a letter to be carried on the same Cunard steamer to Halifax, in a British Province, could only be paid to the port. Moreover, letters carried pursuant to the British open mail provisions of the United Kingdom treaty were charged a uniform 5¢ inland postage regardless of the distance to the port of debarkation, while letters to Halifax, not covered by the British open mail provisions, were still liable to charges of 5¢ or 10¢ depending upon the distance to the port. Letters from Halifax were also subject to confusion. At the start of the treaty period, letters arriving at Boston or New York from the United Kingdom were rated 1 shilling (24¢) to destination. However, letters arriving from Halifax, which were carried on the same ship (but a much shorter distance) were prepaid the same 1 shilling packet postage, but were charged ordinary inland postage of 5¢ or 10¢ to destination. Given these illogical rates, it is no surprise that there was confusion.

Ex Rep. Ernest R. Ackerman, Henry C. Gibson, Sr., Capt. Edward R. Wood, Jr., Philip H. Ward, Jr., John D. Pope III and Henry Stollnitz. Illustrated in Brookman, The 19th Century Postage Stamps of the United States (Vol. 1, p. 33). With 1985 P.F. certificate. (Image)

E. $ 15,000-20,000

Openings not Provided
Sold...US$ 27,000.00

Closed..Oct-29-2019, 14:32:00 EST
Sold For 27000

Sale No: 1211
Lot No: 140
Symbol: C
Cat No: 1, 2

image One of ten recorded 1847 Issue Retaliatory Rate uses--only three have the 5¢ and 10¢ stamps combined, and only two are addressed to the Maritime Provinces


5¢ Red Brown (1), horizontal strip of three, and two 10¢ Black (2) singles arranged as a pair, 5¢ strip has full margins to clear on three sides, full to just in at right, left 10¢ has large margins to clear, right 10¢ large margins to just in at bottom, latter shows slip of the engraver's tool in frameline at lower left, one 5¢ and both 10¢ have pinpoints in neat rows from the use of affixing wafers, tied by red square grid cancels, matching "New-York Aug. 22" (1848) circular datestamp, red "BALTIMORE R.R." straightline handstamp clearly struck on blue part-printed notice (a front panel with one original flap) to Halifax, Nova Scotia, addressed to John Esson & Co., sender's directive "pr Cunard steamer from Boston of 23 August" at lower left, as well as "paid by stamps" which is mostly covered by the 5¢ strip--carried on the Cunarder Acadia, departing Boston on August 23, 1848, and arriving at Halifax August 25 before continuing its transatlantic voyage to Liverpool, where it arrived September 4--the Halifax office first backstamped the cover with "SHIP-LETTER/HALIFAX N.S./25AU1848" framed datestamp, but this was crossed out in manuscript and the same clerk rated the cover "1/-" one-shilling due for British packet postage, disregarding the prepayment, backstamped with the appropriate packet receiving datestamp "UD. STATES/HALIFAX/AU 25 1848"


John F. Seybold, J. C. Morgenthau, Sale 29, 3/15-16/1910, lot 37

Creighton C. Hart, Robert G. Kaufmann sale, 4/30/1990, lot 248

John R. Boker, Jr. (collection sold privately to William H. Gross, 1994)


USPCS census no. 8887 https://www.uspcs.org/resource-center/censuses/1847-cover-census/

Creighton C. Hart, "1847 Covers to the Maritime Provinces," Chronicle 78, p. 80

David D'Alessandris, "1847 Covers to the Maritime Provinces: An Update," Chronicle 238, fig. 11


Very Fine appearance; a front with one original flap (with backstamps) and other flaps added, silked inside, one 5¢ creased from file fold


The British and American Postal War

The so-called Retaliatory Period resulted from Great Britain's effort to maintain its monopoly on transatlantic mail carriage through the subsidized Cunard steamship line, which operated without competition from 1840 through 1846. In response to the emergence of subsidized American packets in 1847 (the Ocean Line), the British issued an order (effective June 9, 1847) authorizing its receiving offices to collect the usual British packet postage on letters carried to England by American subsidized steamers. This effectively allowed England to collect 24¢ packet charges for every inbound letter, whether or not any service had been performed.

The United States vehemently protested the British order through diplomatic channels, but efforts to persuade the government to rescind the anti-American postal tariff were unsuccessful. In December 1847, U.S. Postmaster General Cave Johnson petitioned Congress for power to levy like charges on mail carried by British steamers to or from the U.S., but he was not authorized to do so until June 1848. On all inbound and outbound Cunard sailings from June 24, 1848, through December 31, 1848, American packet postage was required, whether or not an American vessel was used, creating the so-called Retaliatory Rate. Beginning with the departure of the Europa on January 10, 1849, earlier rates were restored.

The first mail affected by the U.S. Retaliatory Rate was outbound mail carried on the Cunard Line's Britannia, which left New York on July 5, 1848, and arrived in Liverpool on July 19. Days later, on July 8, the Cunarder Caledonia arrived in New York with its mail. Every letter on these ships and all subsequent packets during the Retaliatory Period were charged both British and U.S. packet postage, including packet letters to Nova Scotia.

On December 15, 1848, a postal treaty between the two nations was signed. It was ratified in January and the treaty terms commenced on February 15, 1849.

This cover to Nova Scotia reflects the dispute between the U.S. and Great Britain. The sender paid 10¢ for U.S. postage from Baltimore to Boston and the 24¢ sea postage (1¢ overpayment). The letter was carried on the Cunarder Acadia from Boston, which stopped at Halifax on August 25, 1848. At the Halifax office, the 24¢ prepayment was ignored and the "1/-" shilling due marking indicated the amount owed for sea postage.

Only ten 1847 Issue uses are known with Retaliatory Rate charges. Of the ten, only two are addressed to the Maritime Provinces (both to Nova Scotia) and three have a combination of the two 1847 denominations. (Image)

E. $ 20,000-30,000

Openings not Provided
Sold...US$ 28,000.00

Closed..Oct-29-2019, 14:34:01 EST
Sold For 28000

Sale No: 1211
Lot No: 141
Symbol: C
Cat No: 2

image 1847 cover from Brazil to Nova Scotia via New York City, where it entered the mail as a ship letter

10¢ Black (2), two singles, Positions 97R and 100R, left stamp ample margins to just in at right, right stamp large margins except tiny v-shaped nick at top, tied by red square grid cancels, matching "New-York Feb. 29" (1848) leap year datestamp on folded cover from Pernambuco, Brazil, to New York City, where received as a ship letter and forwarded to Halifax, Nova Scotia, stamps affixed over manuscript ship-name directive "Pr Sooloo" which sailed from Pernambuco on January 22, 1848, and arrived at New York on February 28, blue manuscript "6" ship-letter rate, red wax seal "McE Co., Pernambuco" (McEvers & Co.), addressed to J. & M. Tobin in Halifax, care of Bache McEvers in New York, after this arrived in New York the "care of" portion of address and ship directive were crossed out and the two stamps were affixed before remailing (double rate to Nova Scotia), clear "FORWARDED BY/BACHE McEVERS/NEW-YORK" backstamp, blue St. Andrew (March 4), St. John (March 6) and oval Halifax (March 11) backstamps, manuscript "2/3" rate for 2 shillings 3 pence due, receipt docketing "Capt. R. Thomas, January 22, 1848", slight wear along file fold, cover stains and mended tears, otherwise Fine, a very unusual and probably unique ship letter from Brazil to New York and on to Nova Scotia, ex Hart and Boker (Image)

E. $ 2,000-3,000

Openings not Provided
Sold...US$ 2,300.00

Closed..Oct-29-2019, 14:35:05 EST
Sold For 2300

Sale No: 1211
Lot No: 142
Symbol: C
Cat No: 1

image Cover originating in Halifax, Nova Scotia, and sent to Canada through the United States

5¢ Red Brown (1), two singles, bright color, large margins to barely in on one, slightly overlapping, tied by black grid cancels, and red "Boston 10cts 5 Oct." (1850) integral-rate circular datestamp on gray folded cover originating in Halifax, Nova Scotia, and sent to St. Catharines, Canada West, origin confirmed by clear "Wm Pryor & Sons, Halifax, Octr. 2, 1850, state of market" docketing on top flap and sender's routing instructions "via Boston" at lower left, "Queenston U.C. Oct. 9, 1850" circular datestamp, manuscript "4-1/2" pence due marking also ties one stamp, Very Fine and unusual use, carried by a passenger on the Cunarder Cambria from Halifax to Boston (departing October 3, arriving October 5), where the two 5¢ stamps were applied, then put into the mails--the overland rate entirely within Canada and provinces would have been 2 shilling 7-1/2 pence (more than U.S. 50¢), so a significant savings in both time and money was gained by sending this to Boston and using the U.S. mail to Canada, ex Hart and Boker, illustrated in an article by Susan M. McDonald titled "Remember that Time is Money: Two Unusual Covers with U.S. 1847 Stamps" (1973 Congress Book) (Image)

E. $ 2,000-3,000

Openings not Provided
Sold...US$ 1,600.00

Closed..Oct-29-2019, 14:35:51 EST
Sold For 1600

Sale No: 1211
Lot No: 143
Symbol: C
Cat No: 2

image The earliest of the three recorded 1847 Issue covers to Prince Edward Island and the only cover to that destination sent by steamer

10¢ Black (2), large margins to clear, tied by two or three strikes of red grid cancel, matching "STEAM•BOAT" straightline and "X" Roman numeral 10¢ rate handstamp (rate crossed out) applied at Eastport, Maine, where it entered the post office, on grayish blue folded letter datelined "Boston, U. States, Thursday, 10th May, 1849" to Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, sender's routing instructions "Via New Brunswick" at lower left, clear strike of "ST. JOHN•N•B/SHIP LETTER" two-line handstamp, backstamped St. John (May 12), Pictou (May 14) and Prince Edward Island (May 17), manuscript "1/4" 1sh4p (currency) ship-letter rate due marking applied at St. John, New Brunswick

Very Fine; stamp slightly toned, a few bleached spots in cover--inconsequential flaws, considering this is one of only three 1847 covers to Prince Edward Island, the earliest of the three, and the only one that was carried by steamer route rather than by land. Only one other 1847 cover has this combination of markings (it is addressed to Pictou, Nova Scotia).

The letter writer describes his journey, noting that he arrived in Portland by steamer the day before and then traveled by railroad to Boston. He anticipates going to New York City--"I have some idea if I can get ready in time to go to New York & there take the steamer for Halifax."--which explains the presence of the U.S. "STEAM•BOAT" handstamp. Rather than put the letter into the Boston post office, the writer entrusted it to the captain of a steam vessel--probably Hiram Favor, captain of the Admiral--who carried it to Eastport, Maine. The 10¢ rate handstamp was crossed out and the 10¢ stamp was cancelled. It left Eastport, Maine, on the steamer Maid of Erin on its regularly scheduled trip to St. John, New Brunswick, arriving on Saturday, May 12. At St. John the cover entered the British mail system as a ship letter, receiving the "ST. JOHN•N•B/SHIP LETTER" handstamp. From St. John it was conveyed to Pictou, Nova Scotia, and on to Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island.

Other than the destination, this cover is very similar to the 5¢ 1847 cover to Pictou, Nova Scotia, with the same "STEAM•BOAT" and "ST. JOHN•N•B/SHIP LETTER" handstamps, illustrated in an article by David D'Alessandris ("1847 Covers to the Maritime Provinces: An Update," Chronicle 238, fig. 2, USPCS census no. 4404). Both covers were received at Eastport as steamboat letters and at St. John as ship letters.

Ex Dale-Lichtenstein and John R. Boker, Jr. (Image)

E. $ 10,000-15,000

Openings not Provided
Sold...US$ 17,500.00

Closed..Oct-29-2019, 14:37:39 EST
Sold For 17500
Sale No: 1211
Lot No: 144
Symbol: C
Cat No: 2

image Bottom sheet-margin 10¢ 1847 Issue on cover to Canada, postmarked on the first day of the treaty that allowed letters to be fully prepaid--the only recorded April 6, 1851, cover

10¢ Black (2), Position 99R, three large margins including wide bottom sheet margin, clear to in at left, tied by red square grid cancel, matching "New-York Apl. 6" (1851) circular datestamp on blue folded letter to Hamilton, Canada West, manuscript "U.S." in magenta exchange marking also ties stamp, neat "Queenston U.C. Apr. 8, 1851" transit datestamp, red Hamilton receiving backstamp (April 9)

Very Fine--this is the only recorded 1847 Issue cover to Canada postmarked on April 6, 1851, the first day that the U.S.-Canada treaty rate took effect, which allowed for full prepayment of mail between the two countries. It is especially desirable with a manuscript exchange office marking, which is unique, and the clearly struck datestamps.

Prior to April 6, 1851, letters sent to Canada could only be prepaid to the border. Canadian postage, based on weight and distance, was charged to the recipient. Effective April 6, 1851, the postal agreement established a rate of 10¢ per half ounce (6 pence reciprocal rate in Canada), with the exception of some West Coast destinations to which a 15¢ rate applied. Short paid mail would be treated as completely unpaid. Each country retained all postage fees collected.

The agreement required a "U. States" marking to be applied, along with a notation of "Paid" in red ink if prepaid or in black if treated as unpaid. The cover offered here, postmarked on the first day of the new rates, does not bear either of those markings, except for the improvised "U.S." manuscript marking.

The 1847 Issue was demonetized on July 1, 1851, so there was only a brief period (April-June 1851) when covers could be prepaid with the new rate using 1847 stamps. Mail to and from the Maritime Provinces was not subject to a similar agreement until July 6, 1851, after the 1847 Issue was demonetized.

Ex John D. Pope III, Dr. John L. Robertson and Joseph Hackmey. Described in Stanley B. Ashbrook, Special Service, #80, p. 649, photo 318. (Image)

E. $ 15,000-20,000

Openings not Provided
Sold...US$ 11,000.00

Closed..Oct-29-2019, 14:38:36 EST
Sold For 11000

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